First appearing in Batman comics in 1961, the character Batgirl works closely with the Batman. The role of Batgirl has also been passed on to a multitude of characters like Barbara Gordon, Betty Kane, Helena Bertinelli, Cassandra Cain, and Stephanie Brown. The character appeared regularly in Detective Comics, Batman Family, and several other books produced by DC until 1988. That year, Barbara Gordon appeared in Barbara Kesel's Batgirl Special #1, in which she retires from crime-fighting. She subsequently appeared in Alan Moore's graphic novel Batman: The Killing Joke, where she is shot by the Joker and left as a paraplegic. Her most recent adaptation on film was in the LEGO Batman movie.